About Brain Injuries

Here you will be able to find all you need to know about brain injuries and how to find a brain injury lawyer.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain.  A TBI is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain.  Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain.  A person with a mild TBI may have a brief change in mental status of consciousness.  A severe TBI may experience an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury.

In most aspects a traumatic brain injury is very different.  Since our brain defines who we are, the consequences of a brain injury can affect all aspects of our lives, including our personality.  A brain injury is different from a broken limb or punctured lung.  An injury in these areas limit the use of a specific part of your body, but your personality and mental abilities remain unchanged.  Most often, these body structures heal and regain their previous function.

Brain injuries do not heal like other injuries.  Recovery is a functional recovery, based on mechanisms that remain uncertain.  No two brain injuries are alike and the consequence of two similar injuries may be very different.  Symptoms may appear right away or may not be present for days or weeks after the injury.

Some other symptoms of mild TBI include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking.  A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.

Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those who are in accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws.

TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. The most common causes of TBI in the U.S. include violence, transportation and car accidents, construction, and sports.  Bicycles and motor bikes are major causes, with the latter increasing in frequency in developing countries. The estimates that between 1.6 and 3.8 million traumatic brain injuries each year are a result of sports and recreation activities in the US. In children aged two to four, falls are the most common cause of TBI, while in older children bicycle and auto accidents compete with falls for this position. TBI is the third most common injury to result from child abuse. Abuse causes 19% of cases of pediatric brain trauma, and the death rate is higher among these cases. Domestic violence is another cause of TBI, as are work-related and industrial accidents. Firearms and blast injuries from explosions are other causes of TBI, which is the leading cause of death and disability in war zones. According to Representative Bill Pascrell (Democrat, NJ), TBI is “the signature injury of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.”

Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those who are in accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws.  In addition, changes to public policy and safety laws can be made; these include speed limits, seat belt and helmet laws, and road engineering practices.

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The best way to protect yourself and your family from brain injuries is to prevent them from happening in the first place. Injury prevention is one of the most significant health care issues in the United States.
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Anyone with signs of moderate or severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) should receive medical attention as soon as possible.
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Traumatic brain injury can have wide-ranging physical and psychological effects. Some signs or symptoms may appear immediately after the traumatic event, while others may appear days or weeks later.
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Traumatic brain injury is caused by a blow or other traumatic injury to the head. The degree of damage can depend on several factors including the nature of the event and the force of impact.


It's always easy to know if someone has a concussion. You don’t have to lose consciousness to have a concussion. A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Although there may be cuts or bruises on the head or face, there may be no other visible signs of a brain injury.



Common Causes of TBI

Falling out of bed, slipping in the bath, falling down steps, falling from ladders and related falls are the most common cause of traumatic brain injury overall, particularly in older adults and young children.

Collisions involving cars, motorcycles or bicycles — and pedestrians involved in such accidents — are a common cause of traumatic brain injury, particularly among adults in their early 20s.

About 10 percent of traumatic brain injuries are caused by violence, such as gunshot wounds, domestic violence or child abuse. Shaken baby syndrome is traumatic brain injury caused by the violent shaking of an infant that damages brain cells.

Traumatic brain injuries may be caused by injuries from a number of sports, including boxing, football, baseball, lacrosse, skateboarding, hockey, and other high-impact or extreme sports.

Explosive blasts are a common cause of traumatic brain injury in active-duty military personnel. Although the mechanism of damage isn’t well understood, many researchers believe that the pressure wave passing through the brain significantly disrupts brain function. Traumatic brain injury also results from penetrating wounds, severe blows to the head with shrapnel or debris, and falls or bodily collisions with objects following a blast.

Brain AnatomyThe anatomy of the brain is complex due its intricate structure and function.

There are three major divisions of the brain. They are:



Responsible for a variety of functions including receiving and processing sensory information, thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language, and controlling motor function.


The midbrain is the portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and the forebrain. This region of the brain is involved in auditory and visual responses as well as motor function.


Extends from the spinal cord and is composed of the metencephalon and myelencephalon. The metencephalon contains structures such as the pons and cerebellum.