Brain Injury Statistics
Traumatic brain injury is damage to the brain as the result of an injury. Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head that causes the brain to collide with the inside of the skull. An object penetrating the skull, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, also can cause traumatic brain injury. Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in bruising, torn issues, bleeding and other physical damage to the brain that can result in long-term complications or death.
Here are some statistics about traumatic brain injury:
- About two million head injuries of all types (including skull and facial fractures) occur each year in the U.S. (175 to 200 per 100,000 population).
- Over 1.5 million Americans suffer nonfatal traumatic brain injuries each year which do not require hospitalization.
- Another 300,000 individuals suffer brain injuries severe enough to require hospitalization, with 99,000 resulting in a lasting disability. A total of 56,000 people die each year as a result of traumatic brain injury.
- Traumatic brain injuries account for an estimated 34% of all injury deaths in the United States.
- An estimated 62.3 per 100,000 adults age 15 and over are living in the community with enduring functional impairments due to TBI.
TBI by Age
- Children aged 0 to 4 years, older adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, and adults aged 65 years and older are most likely to sustain a TBI.
- Almost half a million emergency department visits for TBI are made annually by children aged 0 to 14 years.
- Adults aged 75 years and older have the highest rates of TBI-related hospitalization and death.
- Research suggests that residents in rural areas have higher age-adjusted rates of both fatal traumatic brain injuries and those requiring hospitalization.
TBI by Gender
- In every age group, TBI rates are higher for males than for females.
- Males aged 0 to 4 years have the highest rates of TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths.
Causes of TBI
- Motor vehicle accidents account for an estimated 28% of traumatic brain injuries; sports/physical activity account for 20%; assaults are responsible for 9%; 43% are due to “other” reasons.
- Alcohol was involved in 41% of all fatal crashes and 7% of all crashes in 1996. More than 321,000 persons were injured in accidents where alcohol was present.
- Brain injuries resulting from firearms have risen 13% between 1984 to 1992.
- About 5% to 10% of skiing accidents result in head injuries.
Cost of Care
- The direct and indirect costs of traumatic brain injury in the U.S. have been estimated to be $48.3 billion annually.
- Lifetime costs for one person surviving a severe TBI can reach $4 million.
- An estimate of medical and non-medical per TBI survivor averages $151,587.
- Acute rehabilitation costs for survivors of a severe TBI have been shown to average about $1,000 a day and the average stay is about 55 days.
- Medical costs are highest for those who do not survive.
- Motorcycle helmets provide protection for motorcycle drivers for all types and locations of head injuries.
- The risk of brain injury in hospitalized motorcyclists is nearly twice that for un-helmeted motorcyclists and their care costs three times that of a helmeted driver.
- In CA, the first year’s implementation of the 1992 helmet law resulted in a 37.5% decrease in statewide motorcycle crash fatalities over the previous year and those likely to sustain TBI-related impairments decreased 34%.
- Air bags have been associated with a substantial reduction of fatalities in motor vehicle accidents involving adults.
Brain Injury Information
- Anatomy of the Brain
- Brain Injury Glossary
- Brain Injury Prevention
- Brain Injury Statistics
- Children’s Brain Injuries
- Common Causes of TBI
- Concussion Checklist
- Effects of Brain Injury
- Emotional Changes Associated with Brain Injury
- Financial Costs of Brain Injuries
- Football Brain Injuries
- Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
- Symptoms of Brain Injury
- TBI Frequently Asked Questions
- Treatment for TBI
- What is Traumatic Brain Injury?
- What To Do After a Concussion